The opinion of the court was delivered by: Honorable Ronald E. Bush U. S. Magistrate Judge
MEMORANDUM DECISION AND ORDER
Now pending before the Court is Petitioner Richard D. Maddox's Petition for Review (Docket No. 1), seeking review of the Social Security Administration's decision to deny his claim for disability insurance benefits. This action is brought pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 405(g). Having carefully reviewed the record and otherwise being fully advised, the Court enters the following Memorandum Decision and Order:
I. FACTUAL BACKGROUND & ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS
Petitioner Richard D. Maddox ("Petitioner" or "claimant") was employed in roughly the same line of work for over 26 years. AR 34. His last job was in a water treatment plant monitoring samples, removing phosphorous from the sumps, and operating monitoring equipment. AR 33. He was 57 years old at the time of the hearing before the Administrative Law Judge ("ALJ"). AR 27.
On March 1, 2006, Petitioner applied for supplemental security income, alleging disability beginning December 23, 2005. AR 11, 113. He specifically alleged that rheumatoid arthritis throughout the body, spine deformation, hearing loss, depression, carpal tunnel in both wrists, and a torn rotator cuff of left shoulder limit his ability to work. AR 142.
Petitioner's claim was initially denied on May 19, 2006, and again upon reconsideration on July 28, 2006. AR 11. Petitioner then filed a written request for hearing before an ALJ. AR 14. ALJ Donald R. Jensen presided over a hearing on February 15, 2008 in Pocatello, Idaho. AR 11. Petitioner appeared and testified at the hearing, as did Connie Hill, a vocational expert. Petitioner was represented at the hearing by attorney Merrick Jackson.
On July 23, 2008, the ALJ issued a decision, denying Petitioner's claims, finding that Petitioner was not disabled within the meaning of the Social Security Act. AR 8. The ALJ found Petitioner's hearing loss and the degenerative, disease of the spine, hip, and fingers to be severe, AR 13, but Petitioner's depression, anxiety and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ("PTSD") were found to only be mild, AR 14.
Petitioner timely requested review by the Appeals Council on September 10, 2008. AR 5. The Appeals Council denied Petitioner's request on April 15, 2009, making the ALJ's decision the final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security. Having exhausted his administrative remedies, Petitioner timely filed the instant action, challenging the ALJ's evaluation of the evidence. Petitioner argues that his impairments meet or medically equal impairments listed at 20 C.F.R. pt. 404, subpt. P, app. 1, §§ 1.02, 1.04, and 2.08; that the combined effects of his impairments render him disabled; that the ALJ's determinations that depression and anxiety are not severe impairments are not supported by substantial evidence, and that the ALJ erred in finding he is able to perform past relevant work. In the discussion sections of his brief, Petitioner appears to challenge the ALJ's determination of his credibility, but he does not list it as an issue on appeal. As many of the issues Petitioner raises relate to the ALJ's credibility assessment, the Court will discuss that finding first in its analysis.
It is undisputed that the burden of proof rests upon Petitioner to establish an entitlement to disability benefits. Meanel v. Apfel, 172 F.3d 1111, 1113 (9th Cir. 1999). In evaluating the evidence at an administrative hearing, the ALJ must follow a five-part sequential process. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520, 416.920. Notably, the second part of that process involves a determination of whether the claimant has a "severe impairment." 20 C.F.R. § 416.905(a). If no "severe" impairment is found, the claimant will be found not to be disabled for the purpose of conferring benefits. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520(c), 416.920(c).
To be upheld, the Commissioner's decision must be supported by substantial evidence and based on proper legal standards. 42 U.S.C. § 405(g); Matney ex. rel. Matney v. Sullivan, 981 F.2d 1016, 1019 (9th Cir. 1992); Gonzalez v. Sullivan, 914 F.2d 1197, 1200 (9th Cir. 1990). The ALJ's findings as to any question of fact, if supported by substantial evidence, are conclusive.
42 U.S.C. § 405(g); Vidal v. Harris, 637 F.2d 710, 712 (9th Cir. 1981). In other words, if there is substantial evidence to support the ALJ's factual decisions, they must be upheld, even when there is conflicting evidence. Hall v. Sec'y of Health, Educ. & Welfare, 602 F.2d 1372, 1374 (9th Cir. 1979).
"Substantial evidence" is defined as such relevant evidence as a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to support a conclusion. Richardson v. Perales, 402 U.S. 389, 401 (1971); Tylitzki v. Shalala, 999 F.2d 1411, 1413 (9th Cir. 1993); Flatten v. Sec'y of Health & Human Servs., 44 F.3d 1453, 1457 (9th Cir. 1995). The standard requires more than a scintilla but less than a preponderance, Sorenson v. Weinberger, 514 F.2d 1112, 1119 n. 10 (9th Cir. 1975); Magallanes v. Bowen, 881 F.2d 747, 750 (9th Cir. 1989), and "does not mean a large or considerable amount of evidence." Pierce v. Underwood, 487 U.S. 552, 565 (1988).
With respect to questions of fact, the role of the Court is to review the record as a whole to determine whether it contains evidence that would allow a reasonable mind to accept the conclusions of the ALJ. See Richardson, 402 U.S. at 401; see also Matney, 981 F.2d at 1019. The ALJ is responsible for determining credibility and resolving conflicts in medical testimony, Allen v. Heckler, 749 F.2d 577, 579 (9th Cir. 1984), resolving ambiguities, see Vincent ex. rel. Vincent v. Heckler, 739 F.2d 1393, 1394-95 (9th Cir. 1984), and drawing inferences logically flowing from the evidence, Sample v. Schweiker, 694 F.2d 639, 642 (9th Cir. 1982). Where the evidence is susceptible to more than one rational interpretation in a disability proceeding, the reviewing court may not substitute its judgment or interpretation of the record for that of the ALJ. Flatten, 44 F.3d at 1457; Key v. Heckler, 754 F.2d 1545, 1549 (9th Cir. 1985).
With respect to questions of law, the ALJ's decision must be based on proper legal standards and will be reversed for legal error. Matney, 981 F.2d at 1019. The ALJ's construction of the Social Security Act is entitled to deference if it has a reasonable basis in law. See id. However, reviewing federal courts "will not rubber-stamp an administrative decision that is inconsistent with the statutory mandate or that frustrates the congressional purpose underlying the statute." Smith v. Heckler, 820 F.2d 1093, 1094 (9th Cir. 1987).
In evaluating the evidence presented at an administrative hearing, the ALJ must follow a five-step sequential process in determining whether a person is disabled within the meaning of the Social Security Act. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520, 416.920.
The first step requires the ALJ to determine whether the claimant is engaged in substantial gainful activity ("SGA"). 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520(a)(4)(i), 416.920(a)(4)(i). SGA is defined as work activity that is both substantial and gainful. "Substantial work activity" is work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1572(a), 416.972(a). "Gainful work activity" is work that is usually done for pay or profit, whether or not a profit is realized. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1572(b), 416.972(b). If the claimant has engaged in SGA, disability benefits are denied, regardless of how severe his physical/mental impairments are and regardless of his age, education, and work experience. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520(b), 416.920(b). If the claimant is not engaging in SGA, the analysis proceeds to the second step. Here, the ALJ concluded that Petitioner has not engaged in SGA during any relevant time. AR 13.
The second step requires the ALJ to determine whether the claimant has a medically determinable impairment, or combination of impairments, that is severe and meets the duration requirement. 20 C.F.R. § 404.1520(a)(4)(ii), 416.920(a)(4)(ii). An impairment or combination of impairments is "severe" within the meaning of the Social Security Act if it significantly limits an individual's ability to perform basic work activities. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520(c), 416.920(c). An impairment or combination of impairments is "not severe" when medical and other evidence establish only a slight abnormality or a combination of slight abnormalities that would have no more than a minimal effect on an individual's ability to work. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1521, 416.921. If the claimant does not have a severe medically determinable impairment or combination of impairments, disability benefits are denied. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520(c), 416.920(c). Here, the ALJ found that Petitioner had the following severe impairments: degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine, hearing loss, and osteoarthrosis. AR 13.
The third step requires the ALJ to determine the medical severity of any impairments; that is, whether the claimant's impairments meet or equal a listed impairment under 20 C.F.R. Part 404, Subpart P, Appendix 1. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520(a)(4)(iii), 416.920(a)(4)(iii). If the answer is yes, the claimant is considered disabled under the Social Security Act and benefits are awarded. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520(d), 416.920(d). If the claimant's impairments neither meet nor equal one of the listed impairments, the claimant's case cannot be resolved at step three and the evaluation proceeds to step four. Id. Here, the ALJ concluded that Petitioner's above-listed impairments do not meet or medically equal, either singly or in combination, the criteria established for any of the listed impairments. AR 14.
The fourth step of the evaluation process requires the ALJ to determine whether the claimant's residual functional capacity is sufficient for the claimant to perform past relevant work. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520(a)(4)(iv), 416.920(a)(4)(iv). An individual's residual functional capacity is his ability to do physical and mental work activities on a sustained basis despite limitations from his impairments. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1545, 416.945. Further, an individual's past relevant work is work performed within the last 15 years or 15 years prior to the date that disability must be established; also, the work must have lasted long enough for the claimant to learn to do the job and be engaged in substantial gainful activity. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1560(b), 404.1565, 416.960(b), 416.965. Here, the ALJ found Petitioner has the residual functional capacity to perform light work as defined in 20 C.F.R. § 404.1567(b), except that he needs the option to alternate sitting and standing periodically, is limited to frequent fingering bilaterally, should avoid concentrated exposure to noise, would have difficulty communicating in noisy environments, and would require occasional requests to speak louder or repeat what was said in quiet environments. The ALJ determined that Petitioner is able to perform his past relevant work. AR 17.
In the fifth and final step, if it has been established that a claimant can no longer perform past relevant work because of his impairments, the burden shifts to the Commissioner to show that the claimant retains the ability to do alternate work and to demonstrate that such alternate work exists in significant numbers in the national economy. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520(a)(4)(v), 416.920(a)(4)(v), 404.1520(f), 416.920(f); see also Matthews v. Shalala, 10 F.3d 678, 681 (9th Cir. 1993). Because the ALJ found Petitioner ...