Appeal from the District Court of the Third Judicial District of the State of Idaho, in and for Canyon County. The Hon. Juneal C. Kerrick, District Judge.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Eismann, Justice.
The judgment of the district court is affirmed.
This is an appeal challenging the district court's ruling on summary judgment that the plaintiff's action for personal injuries suffered when he fell from a climbing wall was barred by the hold harmless agreement he signed prior to engaging in that activity. We affirm the judgment of the district court.
As a team building exercise, Paul Morrison's employer wanted him and his co-workers to participate in a program at Northwest Nazarene University that included a climbing wall activity. Several days prior to doing so, Morrison's employer required him to sign an agreement prepared by the University holding it harmless from any loss or damage he might incur due to the University's negligence or that of its employees.
Morrison was severely injured when he fell while on the climbing wall. He filed this action alleging that his injuries were caused by the negligence of the University employees who were supervising the climbing wall activity. One of Morrison's co-workers was assigned to control the safety rope used to keep the wall climber from falling, and Morrison alleges that his fall was caused by the negligent failure of a University employee to train and supervise that co-worker.
The University moved for summary judgment on the ground that Morrison's cause of action was barred by the hold harmless agreement. The district court agreed and dismissed this action. Morrison then timely appealed.
Did the District Court Err in Failing to Invalidate the Hold Harmless Agreement Due to the Inequality in Bargaining Power?
"Freedom of contract is a fundamental concept underlying the law of contracts and is an essential element of the free enterprise system." Rawlings v Layne & Bowler Pump Co., 93 Idaho 496, 499, 465 P.2d 107, 110 (1970). Agreements exempting a party from liability for negligence will be upheld unless the party owes to the other party a public duty created by statute or the other party is at an obvious disadvantage in bargaining power. Lee v. Sun Valley Co., 107 Idaho 976, 978, 695 P.2d 361, 363 (1984).
In this case, there is no allegation of any public duty that the University owed to Morrison. However, he contends that there was an obvious disadvantage in bargaining power because his employer required that he sign the hold harmless agreement. The existence of unequal bargaining power is not, by itself, sufficient to relieve a party from the provisions of a hold harmless agreement. Rather, the party must be "compelled to submit to a provision relieving the other from liability for future negligence [because] . . . the party injured has little choice, as a practical matter, but to use the services offered by the party seeking exemption." 57A Am. Jur. 2d Negligence § 63 (2004). It is essentially the same test for determining whether unequal bargaining power between parties to a contract is sufficient to constitute procedural unconscionability. See Lovey v. Regence BlueShield of Idaho, 139 Idaho 37, 42, 72 P.3d 877, 882 (2003) ("Lack of voluntariness can be shown . . . by great imbalance on the parties' bargaining power with the stronger party's terms being nonnegotiable and the weaker party being prevented by market factors, timing, or other pressures from being able to contract with another party on more favorable terms or to refrain from contracting at all.") In this case, Morrison stated in his affidavit: "My said employer told us before we went to the team building exercises that I needed to sign the release in order to participate. All employees were expected to participate and I signed it." He also stated that he was not given the option of refusing to sign the release and it was required by his employer. Morrison was not injured by signing the release. He was injured by falling from the climbing wall. Absent from his affidavit is any statement that he told his employer that he did not want to climb the climbing wall and that his employer ordered him to do so anyway.*fn1
"With respect to adult participants, the general rule is that releases from liability for injuries caused by negligent acts arising in the context of recreational activities are enforceable." 57A Am. Jur. 2d Negligence § 65 (2004). The agreement that Morrison signed stated as a separate paragraph: "The undersigned has read and voluntarily signs this release and waiver of liability and indemnity agreement. The undersigned further agrees that no oral representations, statements or inducements apart from the foregoing agreement have been made." Morrison has not demonstrated a genuine issue of material fact showing that there was an obvious disadvantage in bargaining power sufficient to relieve him of the provisions of the hold harmless agreement that he signed.
Did the District Court Err in Ruling that the Hold Harmless Agreement Was Valid and that It Applied to the Cause of Action Alleged in the Complaint?
Morrison contends that the hold harmless agreement is invalid because it is overly broad and is ineffective to bar his claim because it does not clearly identify the conduct that caused his injuries. "Interpretation of unambiguous language in a contract is an issue of law." McDevitt v. Sportsman's Warehouse, Inc., 151 Idaho 280, 283, 255 P.3d 1166, 1169 (2011).
The agreement is entitled "Release / Hold Harmless / Indemnity / Assumption of Risk Agreement," and it states as follows:
Release: The undersigned, in consideration of being permitted to participate in the Northwest Nazarene University Challenge Course Adventure Program, for educational purposes does irrevocably, personally and for his or her heirs, assigns and legal representatives, release and waive any and all past, present or future claims, demands, and causes of action which the undersigned now has or may in the future have against Northwest Nazarene University, its members, directors, administrators, representatives, officers, agents, employees, and assigns, and each of them (hereinafter jointly and severally referred to as "Releasees"), for any and all past, present or future loss of or damage to property, and/or bodily injury, including death, however caused, resulting from, arising out of or in any way connected with his/her participation in or use of the Northwest Nazarene University Challenge Course Adventure Program.
Hold Harmless/Indemnity: The undersigned agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Releasees and each of them from any loss, liability, damage or cost she/he might incur due to her/his participation in or use of the Northwest Nazarene University Challenge Course Adventure Program whether caused by the negligence of the Releasees or otherwise. The undersigned further covenants not to cause any action at law or in equity to be brought or permit such to be brought in his or her behalf, either directly or indirectly, on account of loss or damage to property and/or bodily injury, including death, against the Releasees, resulting from, or arising out of, or in any way connected with any claims, demands, and causes of action which now or in the future may be asserted against the Releasees arising out of or by reason of said course described above, including any injury, loss or damage that might occur at any place in connection therewith.
Assumption of Risk: The undersigned further states and affirms that he/she is aware of the fact that the aforesaid course, even under the safest conditions possible, may be hazardous, that he/she assumes the risks of any and all loss or of damage to property and/or bodily injury, including death, however caused, resulting out of or in any way connected with the Northwest Nazarene University Challenge Course Adventure Program; that he/she is of legal age and is competent to sign this Waiver of Claims and Release of Liability; and that he/she has read and understands all of the provisions herein contained. Risks include but are not limited to the following: [a list of various types of actions that can cause injury and various types of injuries].
Morrison contends that the hold harmless agreement is invalid because it is overbroad. It exempts the University and "its members, directors, administrators, representatives, officers, agents, employees, and assigns, and each of them" from "any and all past, present or future claims, demands, and causes of action which the undersigned now has or may in the future have" for all "bodily injury, including death, however caused, resulting from, arising out of or in any way connected with his/her participation in or use of the Northwest Nazarene University Challenge Course Adventure Program." It also specifically mentions negligence. The hold harmless agreement is not overbroad. It only applies to all causes of action "resulting from, arising out of or in any way connected with his/her participation in or use of the Northwest Nazarene University Challenge Course Adventure Program."*fn2 Due to the dangers inherent in climbing the climbing wall, the University can certainly require such a release from anyone choosing to engage in that activity.
The agreement is likewise not inapplicable because of its failure to mention the specific conduct that is alleged to have constituted negligence in this case. In Anderson & Nafziger v. G. T. Newcomb, Inc., 100 Idaho 175, 178, 595 P.2d 709, 712 (1979), this Court stated, "Clauses which exclude liability must speak clearly and directly to the particular conduct of the defendant which caused the harm at issue." That language can be misinterpreted, because neither that case nor the cases it ...