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In re Disability Rights Idaho

United States District Court, D. Idaho

April 29, 2015

DISABILITY RIGHTS IDAHO, INC., an Idaho nonprofit corporation, Defendant/Counter-Claimant.


EDWARD J. LODGE, District Judge.


Pending before the Court in the above-entitled matter is Plaintiffs Motion to Remand. (Dkt. 9.) The parties have filed their responsive briefing to the Motion to Remand and the matter is now ripe for the Court's consideration. Having fully reviewed the record herein, the Court finds that the facts and legal arguments are adequately presented in the record. Accordingly, in the interest of avoiding further delay, and because the Court conclusively finds that the decisional process would not be significantly aided by oral argument the Court will decide this matter based on the record.


On September 8, 2014, Plaintiffs, Ada County Coroner and Ada County, initiated this action by filing a Complaint for Declaratory Relief in Idaho state court. The claim relates to requests by the Defendant, Disability Rights Idaho, Inc. (DRI), demanding the Plaintiffs provide certain records relating to the suicide death of an individual, D.T., who had been residing in an inpatient behavioral health unit of an Ada County hospital. Plaintiffs denied the Defendant's request for non-public records and initiated this declaratory judgment action asking for a determination as to whether they are obligated to provided Defendant with the requested records. (Dkt. 1-3.) The claim is brought pursuant to Idaho Code § 1201 et seq., the Uniform Declaratory Judgment Act, and Idaho Rule of Civil Procedure 57. (Dkt. 1-3.) (The Complaint also cites to Idaho Code §§ 10-1210, 12-117, 12-120, 12-121, and "other applicable federal and state laws and/or Rules of Civil Procedure.").

Defendant filed a Notice of Removal bringing the case before this Court pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 1331, 1441(a), 1447(c) based on federal question jurisdiction. (Dkt. 1.) Plaintiffs then filed the instant Motion to Remand arguing the Court has discretion to refrain from deciding this declaratory judgment action because it involves state law issues. (Dkt. 9.) The Court finds as follows.


1. Standard for Removal

Federal district courts are courts of limited jurisdiction, and are "presumed to lack subject matter jurisdiction until the contrary affirmatively appears." Dragovich v. United States Dep't of Treasury, 764 F.Supp.2d 1178, 1184 (N.D. Cal. 2011). When an action is removed to federal district court from state court, the district court has "broad discretion" to remand the removed claim or cause of action. 28 U.S.C. § 1452(b); see also 28 U.S.C. § 1446(c)(4) (noting that if a court finds "that removal should not be permitted, the court shall make an order for summary remand").

A defendant may remove any civil action from state court to federal district court if the district court has original jurisdiction over the matter. 28 U.S.C. § 1441(a). Here, the Defendant argues a federal question is presented because the claim arises under the United States Constitution and/or federal law pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 1331 and 1332. Federal question removal is appropriate under § 1331 which states: "The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States." 28 U.S.C. § 1331. "[A]ny civil action brought in a State court of which the district courts of the United States have original jurisdiction, may be removed by the the district court of the United States...." 28 U.S.C. § 1441(a). The "burden of establishing federal jurisdiction is on the party seeking removal, and the removal statute is strictly construed against removal jurisdiction." Prize Frize, Inc. v. Matrix Inc., 167 F.3d 1261, 1265 (9th Cir. 1999). Any doubt as to the right of removal is resolved in favor of remand. Gaus v. Miles, Inc., 980 F.2d 564, 566 (9th Cir. 1992).

In determining whether removal is proper, the Court first considers whether a federal question exists on the face of the plaintiff's well-pleaded complaint. Caterpillar, Inc. v. Williams, 482 U.S. 386, 392 (1987) ("Only state-court actions that originally could have been filed in federal court may be removed to federal court by the Defendant."). If a complaint alleges only state law claims and lacks a federal question on its face, then the federal court must grant the motion to remand. See 28 U.S.C. § 1447(c); Caterpillar, 482 U.S. at 392. There are, however, exceptions when a well-pleaded state law cause of action will be deemed to arise under federal law and support removal such as "(1) where federal law completely preempts state law, (2) where the claim is necessarily federal in character, or where the right to relief depends on the resolution of a substantial, disputed federal question." ARCO Envtl. Remediation L.L.C. v. Dep't of Health & Envtl. Quality of Mont., 213 F.3d 1108, 1114 (9th Cir. 2000) (internal citations omitted). Furthermore, cases "may not be removed to federal court on the basis of a federal defense." Caterpillar, 482 U.S. at 393. This is true even when the federal defense is one that can be readily anticipated by the Plaintiff. Franchise Tax Bd. of Calif. v. Construction Laborers Vacation Trust of S. Cal., 463 U.S. 1, 10 (1983).

If the district court determines that removal was improper, then plaintiff may be awarded costs and attorney fees accrued in response to the defendant's removal. 28 U.S.C. § 1447(c). The court has broad discretion to award costs and fees whenever it finds that removal was wrong as a matter of law. Balcorta v. Twentieth-Century Fox Film Corp., 208 F.3d 1102, 1106 n. 6 (9th Cir. 2000).

2. Analysis

This is a civil declaratory judgment action brought by Plaintiffs in Idaho state court. (Dkt. 1.) Defendant argues this Court has original jurisdiction because the claim requires a determination as to whether the Protection and Advocacy for Individuals with Mental Illness Act (PAIMI), 42 U.S.C. § 10801 et seq., requires the Ada County Coroner to disclose the records requested by DRI. (Dkt. 15.) Plaintiffs counter that because the Ada County Coroner is not an agency described in PAIMI, 42 ...

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