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Wildlands Defense v. Seesholtz

United States District Court, D. Idaho

November 14, 2017

CECILIA SEESHOLTZ, in her official capacity as Boise National Forest Supervisor; TONY TOOKE, in his official capacity as Chief of the United States Forest Service; UNITED STATES FOREST SERVICE; and UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, Defendants.


          B. Lynn Winmill, United States District Court Chief Judge


         The Court has before it a motion for a temporary restraining order filed by plaintiffs Wildlands Defense, Alliance for the Wild Rockies, and Native Ecosystems Council. The plaintiffs seek to enjoin two salvage logging projects in the Boise National Forest. Because some of the logging is scheduled to begin tomorrow, the Court must consider this motion on an extremely expedited basis with no oral argument and little time for reflection. Accordingly, this decision is entitled to a limited precedential value. For the reasons discussed below, the motion is denied.


         In 2016, the Pioneer Fire burned over 190, 000 acres in the Boise National Forest. Fueled by hot and dry conditions, the Pioneer Fire burned for more than four months, causing significant damage to an area frequently used for recreation. The blackened forest areas included an extensive network of backcountry yurts, trails for motorized and nonmotorized use, and a road system that connects to areas north such as Bear Valley and Deadwood Reservoir.

         In September 2016, the Forest Service began working with interested parties to devise a restoration plan. In this collaborative effort, the Forest Service met with state, local, and tribal government officials, as well as groups representing timber, recreation, and environmental interests.

         Importantly, the Boise Forest Coalition was involved with the Forest Service in the planning process. The Boise Forest Coalition is a group of environmentalists, timber interests, private citizens, and governmental officials. They make recommendations to the Forest Service based on a consensus of their members. Ultimately, the Boise Forest Coalition approved both projects at issue in this case.

         The two projects are known as the North Pioneer Project and the South Pioneer Project. The project areas were separated based on the watershed basin: The North Pioneer Project will be conducted in a watershed that flows into the Payette River, while the South Pioneer Project will be conducted in a watershed that flows into the Boise River. The two areas also have a different mix of recreational, social, and economic needs that warranted a separate analysis.

         The Forest Service designed both projects to: (1) remove hazard trees that posed a risk of falling across roads and trails, and injuring the recreating public; (2) restore forest health, and specifically restore conifer species such as ponderosa pine; (3) improve watershed conditions by decommissioning unauthorized roads currently degrading watershed conditions, and (4) conduct salvage logging before the dead timber deteriorates and loses its economic value. The profit made from the salvage logging will allow the Forest Service to fund the first three purposes listed above.

         In both projects, the Forest Service will log about 70 million board feet of dead trees and hazard trees. Hazard trees are those trees that are likely to fall across a road or public area, restrict transportation, or cause injury to the public or property. This salvage logging would occur on 7.8% of the area burned in the Pioneer Fire. About 65% of the logging in the North Pioneer Project involves the removal of hazard trees, and about 56% of the logging in the South Pioneer Project will involve the removal of hazard trees.

         Both project areas contain Bull Trout and Canada Lynx, listed species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and contain their critical habitat. The Forest Service drafted a Biological Assessment (BA) concluding that neither project would adversely affect either species or their critical habitat. The Forest Service then requested that the Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) review that determination, and the agency agreed to do so. On May 23, 2017, the FWS issued its determination concluding that “the Service concurs with the Forest Service's finding that the two projects are not likely to adversely affect bull trout, bull trout critical habitat, and Canada Lynx.” See SP050188; NP041697.

         Two days later, on May 25, 2017, the Forest Service Regional Forester requested that the Forest Service Chief issue an Emergency Situation Determination (ESD) so that the two projects could begin immediately without waiting for the 90-day objection period. To issue an ESD, the Forest Chief must find that the immediate implementation of the project was necessary for “for relief from hazards threatening human health and safety” or to avoid “a loss of commodity value sufficient to jeopardize the agency's ability to accomplish project objectives directly related to resource protection or restoration.” See 36 C.F.R. §§ 218.21(b).

         Here, the Forest Chief found that both grounds applied: (1) The burned trees constituted a hazard to the public and to reforestation efforts, and (2) delay would result in deterioration of the trees, causing a loss in value of over $1 million and jeopardizing the reforestation plans contained in both Projects that would be funded by those revenues. NP079084; SP079479. The Forest Service Chief issued the ESDs on May 31, 2017.

         On June 23, 2017, the Forest Service issued its Environmental Assessment for the North Pioneer Project, concluding that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was not necessary because the project would not have a significant impact on the environment. ...

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